The Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN) Online Conference Proceedings follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) recommendations. As such, our publication ethics and publication malpractice statement are mainly based on the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (COPE, 2011).


All accepted and registered full, short, work-in-progress, doctoral colloquium papers and extended abstracts describing the non-traditional sessions in the Academic Stream (panel, special session and workshops only) presented at the conference will be published in the conference proceedings and submitted to the IEEE Xplore® digital library if they have been uploaded in the camera-ready form before the stipulated deadline.


Content loaded into Xplore® is made available by IEEE to its abstracting and indexing partners, including Elsevier (Scopus, Ei Compendex), Clarivate Analytics (CPCI—part of Web of Science) and others, for potential inclusion in their respective databases.

The copyrights of the papers are transferred to iLRN (except in cases where they are entirely the work of employees of the US or a crown government).

Authors are expected to attend the conference to present their papers and share their ideas. If a paper is included in the proceedings distributed on site and is later identified as a non-presented paper, it will still be included in the proceedings delivered to IEEE. However, it will be flagged as “no-show” so that the paper will be archived but will not be indexed or appear in IEEE Xplore®

Importantly, copyright of non-presented papers is still retained by iLRN – an author cannot submit the same paper to another conference or journal for publication. However, they can submit an expanded version of the paper elsewhere, provided they first obtain request permission from both, iLRN and IEEE Intellectual Property Rights department using RightsLink. Once permission is granted, the paper can be expanded upon and submitted to another publication venue.

  • All submitted contributions go into a double-blind review process.
  • Manuscripts received for review were treated as confidential documents. iLRN will not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
  • All submitted contributions go into plagiarism check. Articles are rejected if detected for copyright infringement and plagiarism. The authors should ensure that they have written original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
  • A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
  • Submitting the same manuscript to more than one publication concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
  • Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported work.
  • All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
For any queries please contact us at [email protected] 

Core Track 1 – Assessment & Evaluation (A&E)

ID Authors Title Pages
111 MULDERS, Miriam; ZENDER, Raphael An Academic Conference In Virtual Reality? – Evaluation Of A SocialVR Conference 1-6
159 STEINMAURER, Alexander; SACKL, Martin; GÜTL, Christian Engagement in In-Game Questionnaires – Perspectives from Users and Experts 7-13
126 TIEDE, Jennifer; MATIN, Farzin; TREACY, Rita; GRAFE, Silke; MANGINA, Eleni Evaluation Design Methodology for an AR App for English Literacy Skills 14-18
135 WAN, Boxin; HUANG, Wenshan; BAI, Ludi; GUO, Junqi Using Support Vector Machine on EEG Signals for College Students’ Immersive Learning Evaluation 19-23
182 WU, Chen; CHEN, Meng; WU, Di; MA, Jiman; XU, Jian; MA, Binbin Work-in-Progress—Design Method of a Real-Time Monitoring System for ICT Evaluation Process in Education Based on CesiumJS 3D Visualization 24-26

Core Track 2 – Early Childhood Development & Learning (ECDL)

ID Authors Title Pages
110 HERODOTOU, Christothea MADLearn: An Evidence-based Affordance Framework to Assessing Learning Apps 27-34

Core Track 3 – Galleries, Libraries, Archives, & Museums (GLAM)

ID Authors Title Pages
134 CECOTTI, Hubert Great Paintings in Fully Immersive Virtual Reality 35-42
160 PHICHAI, Pornphan; WILLIAMSON, Julie; BARR, Matthew Alternative Design For An Interactive Exhibit Learning In Museums: How Does User Experience Differ Across Different Technologies-VR, Tangible, And Gesture 43-50
105 LIM, Kenneth Y T; WONG, Yuk Yi; HILMY, Ahmed Hazyl Communal Spaces As Ludic Resources Of Learning With Augmented Reality And Board Games 51-55

Core Track 4 – Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, Access, & Social Justice (IDEAS)

118LI, Gege; LUO, Heng; HOU, Shaopeng; ZHU, MinComparison of Direct and Vicarious VR Learning Experience: A Perspective from Accessibility and Equity56-60
142DAHLSTROM-HAKKI, Ibrahim; EDWARDS, Teon; LARSEN, Jamie; ALSTAD, Zachary; BELTON, Gerald; LOUGEN, Daniel; SANTANA, DanielInclusive VR through Inclusive Co-Design with Neurodiverse Learners61-65
109YANO, KojiroWork-in-Progress—Integrated Reading Assistance in an Immersive Environment66-68
140ROBERN, Gil; URIBE QUEVEDO, Alvaro Joffre; SUKAI, Mahadeo; COPPIN, Peter; LEE, Teresa; INGINO, RobertWork-in-Progress—Exploring VR Conference Navigation Employing Audio Cues69-71

Core Track 5 – K-12 STEM Education

175WILLIAMS, Samuel; ENATSKY, Rowena; GILLCASH, Holly; MURPHY, James; GRACANIN, DenisImmersive Technology in the Public School Classroom: When a Class Meets72-79
151SEIDEL, Anna; WEIDLE, Franziska; BÖRNER, ClaudiaProject Learn&Play: Piloting a Game-based Instruction for Students in Comparison to an Engineering Lecture80-84
181HUANG, Corly; CHEN, Qiming; PETROVIC, Vid; RISSOLO, Dominique; CHUKOSKIE, LeanneInteractive Game-based Exploration of an Underwater Paleontological Site85-89
121PLECHER, David; BOROWSKI, JonathanWork-in-Progress—Mathstation: A Grade School Math Supplement Serious Game90-92
144SU, ManWork-in-Progress—AR-supported Collaborative Game for Understanding Complex Systems93-95
180NA, HunhuiWork-in-Progress—The Use of Plane-detection Augmented Reality in Learning Geometry96-98
191TANABASHI, SayuriWork-in-Progress—Plant Cell Biology Education Using Advanced 3D Technologies for K-12 Students99-101
193WIRJADI, Ryan; VUONG, Alex; LIU, Frank; LIKAMWA, RobertWork-in-Progress—Specific Heat of Water Experiment: Augmented Reality Chemistry Lab102-104
195ARAUJO-JUNIOR, Robson; BODZIN, Alec; HAMMOND, Thomas; ANASTASIO, David; LAM, Beigie; MACK, Jeremy; MAYER, Daphne; NEITZ, Robert; SEMMENS, Kathryn; SCHWARTZ, Chad; SLIPP, JasonWork-in-Progress—Watershed Explorers: Designing a Virtual Reality Game to Promote Local Watershed Literacy105-107
198METCALF, Shari; SOMMI, Amanda; HADDADIN, Sima; SCIANNA, Jennifer; GAGNON, DavidWork-in-progress—Game Design Informed by Learning Progressions for Science Practices108-110
207BRENNER, Corinne Julia; OCHOA HENDRIX, Jessica; HOLFORD, MandeWork-in-Progress—Building WaterWays: Investigating AR For Environmental Education111-113
209SHEN, Chien-Chung; CHIOU, Yan-Ming; MOUZA, Chrystalla; RUTHERFORD, TeomaraWork-in-Progress—Design and Evaluation of Mixed Reality Programs for Cybersecurity Education114-116
107SMITH-NUNES, Genevieve Elizabeth; SHAW, AlexDoctoral Colloquium—Pandemic pirouettes: AR Ballet Exploring Data Ethics for the Computing Classroom117-119
145MCGIVNEY, EileenDoctoral Colloquium—Immersive Media in Remote Schooling: “I Was Surprised at How Engaged I Was”120-122

Core Track 6 – Language, Culture, & Heritage (LCH)

131WETZEL, Verena; DENGEL, AndreasGame-Based Religion Education In Virtual Environments: A Pilot Study123-127
132HAFERKAMP, Marie; DENGEL, AndreasLearning Organology in Virtual Environments: A Pilot Study for Virtual Music Education128-132
171TATRO-DUARTE, Rachel Rebecca; MACQUARRIE, Charles Willam;Work-in-Progress—Language, Culture, and Heritage: The VR Experience The Book of Distance and Teaching the Family Folklore Project133-135
210LECAILLIEZ, Louis; VINCENT, Noel H.Doctoral Colloquium—VeRdict: Imbuing VR Language Learning Applications with Dictionary Functionality136-138

Core Track 7 – Medical & Healthcare Education (MHE)

104BUCHEM, Ilona; VORWERG, Susan; STAMM, Oskar; HILDEBRAND, Kristian; BIALEK, YvonneGamification in Mixed-Reality Exergames for Older Adult Patients in a Mobile Immersive Diagnostic Center: A Pilot Study in the BewARe Project.139-146
125SAFIKHANI, Saeed; PIRKER, Johanna; WRIESSNEGGER, SelinaVirtual Reality Applications for The Treatment Of Anxiety And Psychiatric Disorders147-154
130JOHNSON-GLENBERG, Mina C.; KOSA, Mehmet; BALANZAT, Don; NIELAND ZAVALA, Ricardo; APOSTOL, Xavier; RAYAN, Jude; TAYLOR, Hector; BARTOLOMEA, Hannah; ANOOSH, KapadiaCOVIDCampus Game: Making Safer Choices155-162
141ANTONIOU, Panagiotis; CHONDROKOSTAS, Evangelos; BRATSAS, Charalampos; FILIPPIDIS, Panagiotis; BAMIDIS, PanagiotisA Medical Ontology Informed, User Experience Taxonomy To Support Co-creative Workflows for Authoring Mixed Reality Medical Education Spaces163-170
162SHAH, Mamta; SIEBERT-EVENSTONE, Amanda L; EAGAN, Brendan R; HOLTHAUS, RoxanneModeling Teacher Use of Virtual Reality Simulations in Nursing Education Using Epistemic Network Analysis171-178
172CHANG, Ben; GABRILOVE, Janice; LAWSON, Shawn; RUIZ, Kathleen; SI, MeiCureQuest: A Digital Game for New Drug Discovery179-185
103TSAI, Yi Chou; LIN, Gwan Ling; CHENG, Chi ChengWork-in-Progress—Development of Immersive Nursing Skills Learning System and Evaluation of Learning Effectiveness186-188
128HOSSAIN, Mhanaj; ECONOMOU, Daphne; FERGUSON, JeffreyWork-in-Progress—WebXR To Support Student Wellbeing And Anxiety189-191
136MATTHEWS, Shawn; WOOD, Kody; URIBE QUEVEDO, Alvaro Joffre; JAIMES, Norman; DUBROWSKI, Adam; KAPRALOS, Bill; ALAM, Fahad; ROJAS, DavidWork-in-Progress—A Preliminary Eye Tracking and HMD Orientation Comparison to Determine Focus on a Cardiac Auscultation Training Environment192-194
205SEO, Jinsil Hwaryoung; KICKLIGHTER, Caleb; GARCIA, Brittany; CHUN, Soo Wan; WELLS-BEEDE, ElizabethWork-in-Progress—Design and Evaluation of 360 VR Immersive Interactions in Nursing Education195-197

Core Track 8 – Nature & Environmental Sciences (NES)

ID Authors Title Pages
147 WALLGRÜN, Jan Oliver; KNAPP, Eric; TAYLOR, Alan; KLIPPEL, Alexander; ZHAO, Jiayan; SAJJADI, Pejman Place-Based Learning Through a Proxy – Variations in the Perceived Benefits of a Virtual Tour 198-205
123 LIU, Bing; DING, Linfang; MENG, Liqiu Spatial Learning with Extended Reality – A Review of User Studies 206-210
201 DONNELLY, Matthew; NEBUWA, Adaobi; BAUGHMAN, Jaclyn; DOORE, Stacy Work-in-Progress–Virtual Field Trips to Increase Geoscience Accessibility and Student Engagement 211-213
208 LIU, Bing; ZHAN, Zhicheng Work-in-Progress—Improve Spatial Learning by Chunking Navigation Instructions in Mixed Reality 214-216

Core Track 9 – Workforce Development & Industry Training (WDIT)

148PRATTICÒ, Filippo Gabriele; DE LORENZIS, Federico; LAMBERTI, FabrizioLook at It This Way: A Comparison of Metaphors for Directing the User’s Gaze in eXtended Reality Training Systems217-224
149MEYER, Uli; BECKER, Jonathan; MÜLLER, Thomas; JEWORUTZKI, André; DRAHEIM, Susanne; VON LUCK, KaiAsymmetrical Game Design Approaches Solve Didactic Problems in VR Engineer Trainings225-229
153DAHL, Tone LiseA Preliminary Scoping Review of Immersive Virtual Soft Skills Learning and Training of Employees230-234
124COMES, Radu; NEAMTU, Calin; BUNA, Zsolt LeventeWork-in-Progress—Augmented Reality Enriched Project Guide For Mechanical Engineering Students235-237
187KEIVANPOUR, SamiraWork-in-Progress—Digital Twin and Gamification for Designing an Educational Lab for Circular Economy238-240
188BAHCECI, Ozkan Cem; PEÑA-RIOS, Anasol; GUPTA, Vikas; CONWAY, Anthony; OWUSU, GilbertWork-in-Progress—Using Immersive Virtual Reality in Field Service Telecom Engineers Training241-243
212GISLER, Joy; HOLZWARTH, Valentin; CHRISTIAN, Hirt; KUNZ, AndreasWork-in-Progress—Enhancing Training in Virtual
Reality with Hand Tracking and a Real Tool
176HUANG, YaoDoctoral Colloquium—A Qualitative Study to Explore the Use of Augmented Reality as Performance Support in Industries247-249

Core Track 10 – Basic Research & Theory in Immersive Learning

119SIMS, Robert; KARNIK, AbhijitVERITAS: Mind-Mapping in Virtual Reality250-257
122KRÜGER, Jule Marleen; BODEMER, DanielSpace, a Central Frontier – The Role of Spatial Abilities When Learning the Structure of 3D AR Objects258-265
133HILL, Tanya; DU PREEZ, HannekeA Longitudinal Study Of Students’ Perceptions Of Immersive Virtual Reality Teaching Interventions266-272
138KOUTROMANOS, George; MIKROPOULOS, Tassos A.Mobile Augmented Reality Applications in Teaching: A Proposed Technology Acceptance Model273-280
139HENRICH, Adrian; SCHULTZE, Tobias; WEISBECKER, Anette; RIEDEL, OliverIntegrating a Teaching Concept for the Use of Virtual Reality in University Teaching281-288
143SAJJADI, Pejman; ZHAO, Jiayan; WALLGRUN, Jan Oliver; LA FEMINA, Peter; KLIPPEL, AlexanderInfluence of HMD Type and Spatial Ability on Experiences and Learning in Place-based Education289-296
146FONTES, Mario Madureira; PEDROSA, Daniela; ARAÚJO, Tânia; MORAIS, Ceres; COSTA, Aline; CRAVINO, José; MORGADO, LeonelNarrative-Driven Immersion And Students’ Perceptions in an Online Software Programming Course297-303
152ERIKSSON, ThommyFailure and Success in Using Mozilla Hubs for Online Teaching in a Movie Production Course304-311
155BÄCK, Regina Maria; WENRICH, Rainer; DORNER, BirgitGetting there? Together. Cultural Framing of Augmented and Virtual Reality for Art Education312-319
157GERARD, Pierre-Francois; LEYMARIE, Frederic Fol; LATHAM, WilliamThe Effect of Spatial Design on User Memory Performance Using the Method of Loci in VR320-327
167ZHENG, Mengya; PAN, Xingyu; XU, Xuanhui; CAMPBELL, AbrahamMETAL: Explorations into Sharing 3D Educational Content across Augmented Reality Headsets and Light Field Displays328-333
177PETERS, Mitchel; PORTA SIMÓ, Laura; MARÍN AMATLLER, Antoni; CALVET LIÑAN, Laura; BOURDIN KREITZ, PierreToward A User-Centred Design Approach for AR Technologies in Online Higher Education334-341
183DOUMANIS, Ioannis; ECONOMOU, Daphne; ARGYRIOU, LemoniaMeasuring and Comparing QoE of Hybrid VR Applications under Increased Network Load342-348
185BECK, Dennis; MORGADO, Leonel; LEE, Mark; GÜTL, Christian; DENGEL, Andreas; WANG, Minjuan; WARREN, Scott; RICHTER, JonathanTowards an Immersive Learning Knowledge Tree – A Conceptual Framework for Mapping Knowledge and Tools in the Field349-356
112RUSCELLA, J. J.; OBEID, Mohammad F.A Taxonomy for Immersive Experience Design357-361
115SIMS, Robert Matthew; RUTHERFORD, Nathan; SUKUMARAN, Prashanthy; YOTOV, Nikola; SMITH, ThomasLogibot: Promoting Engagement through Visual Programming in Virtual Reality362-366
127JOHNSON, Emily KuzneskiELLE-ments of Learning: A Framework for Analyzing Multimodal Technical Communication Strategies in an Educational VR Game367-370
158EROFEEVA, Maria; KLOWAIT, Nils OliverThe Impact of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality,
and Interactive Whiteboards on the Attention
Management in Secondary School STEM Teaching
161SUSLOV, NikolaiImplementing Decentralized Virtual Time in P2P Collaborative Learning Environment for Web XR376-379
174DENGEL, Andreas; BUCHNER, Josef; MULDERS, Miriam; PIRKER, JohannaBeyond the Horizon: Integrating Immersive Learning Environments in the Everyday Classroom380-384
129HOLLICK, Matthew; ACHEAMPONG, Christian; AHMED, Mahdi; ECONOMOU, Daphne; FERGUSON, JeffreyWork-in-Progress—360-degree Immersive Storytelling Video to Create Empathetic Response385-387
165CHAO, Chih-Nuo, Grace; JONG, Siu-Yung, Morris;LUK, Tsun-Hin, EricWork-in-Progress—Motivation in Virtual Reality Chinese Language Learning in the Context of COVID-19388-390
173JEONG, Museok; LIM, Sungmin; LIM, Taehyeong; RYU, JeeheonWork-in-Progress—Is Virtual Reality Simulation Ineffective for Skill Acquisition Training?391-393
192BOURGUET, Marie-Luce; ROMERO-GONZALEZ, MariaWork-in-Progress—Teaching Invisible Phenomena and Virtual Experiments: Immersion or Augmentation?394-396
194FERNANDEZ, Abel A.; RODRIGUEZ, Sabrina; DAMERELL, Ryan A.Work-in-Progress—Photogrammetry within Virtual Reality397-399
197NISIOTIS, Louis; ALBOUL, LyubaWork-In-Progress – An Intelligent Immersive Learning System Using AI, XR and Robots400-402
200SAMANIEGO-FRANCO, Jennifer Betzabe; JARA-ROA, Dunia Inés; FUERTES-CEVALLOS, Enrique AlejandroWork-in-Progress—Serious Games In Awareness Processes403-405
202LATTKE, Susanne; MORGADO, Leonel; AFONSO, Ana Paula; PENICHEIRO, Filipe;MORGADO, Lina; MOREIRA, José AntónioWork-in-Progress—Immersing E-Facilitators in Training: The Perspective of Project FAVILLE – Facilitators of Virtual Learning406-408
206THOMPSON, BradWork-in-Progress—LIVE: Model for Learning in Interactive and Immersive Virtual Environments409-411
211MA, Qianou; HERCKIS, LaurenWork-in-Progress—VR-Enabled Pedagogy in a First-Year Seminar412-414
106LEUBOU, Richard Ngu; CRESPIN, Benoit; TRESTINI, MarcDoctoral Colloquium—Designing VR Environments For Distance Learning415-417

Special Track – Self and Co-regulated Learning with Immersive Learning Environments (SCILE)

137IQBAL, Muhammad Zahid; MANGINA, Eleni; CAMPBELL, ‪Abraham G.Exploring the Real-Time Touchless Hand Interaction and Intelligent Agents in Augmented Reality Learning Applications418-425
156THOMPSON, Meredith; UZ BILGIN, Cigdem; EBERHART, Rik; CHO, Lucy; ANTENEH, Melat; KLOPFER, EricVisualizing The Collaborative Problem Solving Process In An Immersive Cross Platform Game426-431
120HEAYSMAN, Orna; KRAMARSKI, BrachaSupporting Teachers’ SRL Beliefs and Practices with Immersive Learning Environments: Evidence from a Unique Simulations-Based Program432-436
179YANG, Eunbyul; KIM, Chaeyeon; RYU, JeeheonWork-in-Progress—Effects of Conversational Interaction on In-service Teacher Experience in Virtual Reality Classroom Simulation for Teacher Training437-438
190FLYNN, Cat; CORRIGAN, Seth; GAGNE, FabyWork-in-Progress—Synapse VR: Catalyzing Collaboration Through Immersive Learning439-441
199FERNANDES, Filipe Arantes; WERNER, CláudiaWork-in-Progress—Supporting Software Engineering Education through Immersive Learning442-444
204ECHEVERRI-JIMENEZ, Emmanuel; OLIVER-HOYO, MariaWork-in-Progress—Extracting, Describing and Representing Spatial Features of a Chemical Reaction inside a Virtual Reality Learning Environment445-447

Nontraditional Session Stream (Workshops, Panels, and Special Sessions)

154BRANDON, Esther; FREIWIRTH, Raphael; HJERSMAN, JohannanSpecial Session—Student Engagement with Reduced Bias in a Virtual Classroom Environment448-450
178MENTZELOPOULOS, Markos; BASS- CLARK, DavidWorkshop—Students on Game Immersion451-452
102MASNERI, Stefano; DOMINGUEZ, Ana; MANGINA, EleniWorkshop—Authoring Tools for XR Applications in Education453-454
184ARAÚJO, António BandeiraWorkshop—Drawing Equirectangular Perspectives for VR Panoramas with Eq A Sketch 360455-457
114GUILLEN MANDUJANO, Lupita; KURUC, Erdas; LU, Jun-Li; SANONI, Paola; VARGAS MEZA, XanatPanel Session—Pluriversal Design Transitions for Higher Education Motivated by Covid-19458-460
196ANTONIOU, Panagiotis E.; KONSTANTINIDIS, Stathis Th.; BAMIDIS, Panagiotis D.Panel Session—Co-creative Virtual Reality Content Development in Healthcare: Tackling The Content Availability Problem461-463